Panasiuk A., Ekonomika turystyki i rekreacji, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Szymańska E., Biura podróży na rynku usług turystycznych. Perspektywy turystyki w warunkach rozwoju opartego o innowacje. In Ewa Ekonomika, Ekonomika turystyki i rekreacji (). In A. Panasiuk (Ed.). E-mail addres: [email protected] .. A. Panasiuk (ed.), Ekonomika turystyki i rekreacji, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN,. Warszawa , pp.
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The classic economy distnguishes three basic producton factors: Beginning with technical and organizatonal progress which is a logic extension of coexistence and cooperaton of three basic factors, ending with informaton and knowledge — treated as the most modern factors of producton in the so-called new economy.
In the totality of actvites of tourism economy enttes, a special role should be ascribed to the personnel, namely human potental of tourism economy enttes. This system includes all actvites aimed at meetng touristc demand, from a natural environment adaptaton to the needs of touristc movement to creatng conditons enabling tourism development. Tourism economy is one of the elements of natonal economy structure, which penetrates other sectors and utrystyki supported by turystkyi economic sectors.
Tourism versus spatial order: mutual relations : Turyzm
The majority of economic processes in tourism sector are performed by direct tourism economy and its representatves, touristc entrepreneurs. Territorial self-government units and tourist organizatons play a signifcant role in formaton of economic processes in tourism sector on the regional and local levels. State, understood as a set of politcal insttutons that operate in relaton with civil society, is a regulator of tourism economy processes.
The aim of this publicaton is to present the role of personnel in development of regional tourism economy and an indicaton of the human relatonship models. Producton factors are all inputs involved in the producton of goods and services. Figure 1 presents a system of producton factors in the tourism economy Panasiuk,p. Human factor plays a signifcant role in services, what distnguishes this sphere of economy among the others Riley, Number and qualifcatons of employees are basic indicators of the level of services supply.
Value of work is a dominatng element of cost structure in most services, especially in enttes providing services. It should also be underlined that services usually require highly qualifed work, more complicated than most areas of material producton.
Real situaton on the service market can be judged through the prism of changes in turytyki sphere of employment Panasiuk,pp. In the tourism sector, potental of labor is formed by employees of partcular enttes, especially of tourist companies Tokarz,pp.
It can be considered in a quanttatve approach as well as qualitatve one.
Tourism versus spatial order: mutual relations
The employment rate is used in quanttatve estmaton while educaton and seniority are taken into consideraton in qualitatve estmaton. Actvites related to the operaton of direct tourism economy are mainly taken up by: This personnel creates the turustyki of cooperaton with other partcipants of supply side of the tourism market and they turystyyki part in tasks initated by territorial self-government and tourist organizatons.
They are responsible for the range of creaton of tourist functon. Their competences refer mainly to the municipal and city areas and regions self-government voivodeships.
Among basic competences of employees of units responsible for tourism development are: Signifcant competences in the feld of regional tourism economy are also possessed by the representatves of tourist organizatons managements including local, regional and also tourist sector self-government. Cooperaton is concentrated on joint initatves related to the creaton of tourist products, fnancing those actvites, tourism promoton etc. In the modern economy this factor, used in economic processes, determines social and economic development Dewan and Min, It is the resources of that factor not the natural resources that determine the economic positon of a partcular natonal economy.
Broadly understood informaton including aspects of knowledge and innovatons becomes a basic producton resource in economic processes. Not every item of informaton appearing in the economy is a producton factor.
A producton factor is only that kind of informaton that has features of an economic resource. Informaton economic resources are all potentally useful sets of informaton, gathered and stored in tme, place and by means of technologies and by organizatons enabling their utlizaton by fnal users operatng as economic enttes in the economy. In other words, a producton factor is knowledge about how to utlize labor, land and capital in order to provide services.
It allows tourism economy, in aerial approach, to form the whole processes of tourist products creaton, their market identfcaton, image creaton and integraton of cooperaton between partcular enttes of tourism economy: One of the most signifcant issues in that feld will be an actvity related to the research projects with partcipaton of tourism sector enttes, territorial self-government and other insttutons aiming at development of local and regional tourism economy including scientfc units.
A pre-conditon for implementng changes is entrepreneurship. Entrepreneur creates innovatve Drucker,p. Change in the company becomes innovaton in a proper scale only when it is accepted by stakeholders and strengthened in the form of new standard practces, procedures and products.
The frst type of innovaton is described as product innovaton while the second one as process innovaton.
Creaton of friendly environment for companies, especially from small and medium-sized enterprises sector SME lies within the competences of the insttutons of business surrounding. Supportng centers are most ofen defned as insttutons aiming at widely understood entrepreneurship support.
The operaton of those units consists in Matusiak,p. Cooperaton between companies and enttes of business surrounding in the aspect of innovatve processes leads to the formaton of cluster structures. A cluster is a group of companies and related insttutons, lying in the geographical neighborhood, operatng in a partcular feld, linked together by similarites and mutually completng.
A cluster is a spatal concentraton of companies, insttutons and organizatons mutually linked with expanded net of formal and informal relatons, based on joint way of development e.
A cluster can be a tool of increasing compettveness and innovatveness of local tourism economies. It is also a kind of not wholly formalized net of economic enttes and supportng organizatons, linked together by informal exchange of knowledge and informaton Polski klaster morski,p.
From the point of view of tourism economy, an access to the natural resources or existence of specifc natural conditons in a partcular feld of regional economy, is a determining factor for clusters emergence. In case of such a cluster, its important elements are tourist values around which tourism infrastructure is created, infrastructure enabling consumpton of benefts related to the utlizaton of those values. A partcular tourist area may have many touristc enttes mainly providing tourist services hotels, enttes from the gastronomical sector, tour operators and tourist agents, transport systems enttes, enttes managing tourist atractonsas well as around — touristc, supportng operaton of typical tourist companies Panasiuk, b.
The structure of producton factors in tourism economy determines its operaton. Cooperatve relatons between representatves of:.
Cooperaton generally refers to the following aspects of tourism economy functoning:. The basic platorm of cooperaton are local and regional tourist organizatons.
It can also refer to the other form of cooperaton, e. Cooperaton between representatves of companies, organizatons and territorial self-government units comprises mainly actvites taken up on the highest level, namely owners and management of economic enttes, representatves of self-government authorites, directors of units responsible for creaton of tourist product, authorites of economic self-government organizatons and tourist associatons, regional authorites and local tourist organizatons.
The frst model — of tght cooperaton is related to the agreement between personnel of partcular companies and insttutons and to the realizaton of joint market policy. It consists in good human relatons and integraton around common goals. Moreover, their actvity is not determined by politcal goals. The second model — of limited cooperaton is a partal version of the frst one. This model is the most frequently applied one in the practce of operaton of regional tourist organizatons in Poland.
The next model – of disintegraton consists in the lack of agreement and forms of cooperaton between representatves of tourism sector. Actvites in the feld of tourism economy development are taken up individually by representatves of partcular enttes. In both situatons, market enttes, mainly entrepreneurs but also selfgovernments and tourist organizatons, can take up compettve actvites related to the chosen aspects of tourist product creaton or to all tasks, even compettve to the tasks of an organizaton they are part of.
Examples of those actvites refer especially to the competton between tourist entrepreneurs and they aim at winning market share, and in case of self-governments at gaining funds for development. Competng for obtaining the right to implement tasks and their fnancing can be an example here. It leads to the disintegraton of actvites directed at the tourism economy development untl a crisis in operaton of regional tourist organizatons and at the end to the limitaton of their functons, even to the possible break of their operaton.
A basic problem in that feld is linking or even identfying the tasks of regional tourist organizatons with the tasks of regional self-governments.
As it results from the above consideratons, pro-innovatve policy can stmulate full cooperaton among the regional tourism economy.
A basis for actvity is an innovatve consciousness, thanks to which it is possible to form compettveness toward other tourism economies, especially neighboring ones. Knowledge and access to the fnance as well as personnel should be ranked as a basic conditon for implementaton of innovatve actvites on the regional tourism economy level. From the insttutonal point of view, pro-innovatve actvites in regional tourism economy should be led by tourist companies on the micro level and by regional self-government and regional tourist organizatons on the macro level.
Tourist clusters could be seen as a parallel form to the operaton of regional tourist organizatons. Abstract Tourism economy appears in every sphere of economy: Introducton Tourism economy appears in every sphere of economy: Relatons in the structure of producton factors of regional tourism economy Personnel in tourism Human factor plays a signifcant role in services, what distnguishes this sphere of economy among the others Riley, In the conditons of tourist services market, informaton is utlized as: Innovatveness in tourism economy can be expressed by Page,p.
Implementaton of new goods and services or improving existng ones, e. Implementaton of new methods of productons, e. Opening of new markets for tourist movement from the western countries, e.
Eastern Europe countries, New sources of products supply, e. Creaton of the new type of organizaton, e. Cooperatve relatons between representatves of: Cooperaton generally refers to the following aspects of tourism economy functoning: The following model concepts of personnel relatons on local and regional level are possible: The model of competton can be observed in two situatons, namely in conditons of: The substtuton of informaton technology for other factors of producton: A frm level analysis.
Management Science, 43 Innowacje i transfer technologii.
Zachodniopomorski klaster turystyczny, Szczecin: Folia Eeconomica Cracoviensia, Vol.