Sicklebush (Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.) is a thorny, semi-deciduous to deciduous leguminous shrub that can reach a height of m (Orwa et al. Dichrostachys cinerea. Photo: Bart Wursten Gatsi Communal Area, Honde Valley . Dichrostachys cinerea. Photo: Bart Wursten Mukuvisi Woodland, office area. Dichrostachys cinerea is a very variable and taxonomically complex species found from Africa to Australia. It has at times been treated as several distinct species.
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Skeels, Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. Bull, Mimosa cinerea L.
Sicklebush Dichrostachys cinerea L. The bark is green when young and becomes grey-brown and fissured as the tree grows. The leaves are petiolated, bipinnate, bearing leaflets Orwa et al. The inflorescence is a fragrant, cylindrical cm long bicoloured spike that bears reddish-purple sterile flowers in the upper part and pale yellow-cream fertile ones in the lower part Orwa et al.
The pods contain 4 seeds Orwa et al. Dichrostachys cinerea is a multipurpose tree and its pods and seeds are edible Ecocrop, The wood is heavy and termite-resistant and is thus used to make posts and fences.
It can be used for fuel since it cichrostachys no smoke and burns slowly. The bark is fibrous and used for twine Orwa et al.
The leaves and fruits are relished by wild and domestic ruminants Aganga et al. The pods ripen during periods of scarcity. They are indehiscent and can be stored without any problem Mlambo et al.
It is well suited for silvopastoral systems since it can be intercropped with grasses and legumes such as dichroztachys grass Cenchrus ciliarissewan grass Lasiurus scindicus and caribbean stylo Stylosanthes hamata Orwa et al.
Sicklebush is sometimes a source of conflict between pastoralists and charcoal producers Kavana et al. Dichrostachys cinerea originated from Africa and spread to many tropical areas in Asia, Finerea, America and the Caribbean.
It is found in frost-free areas on poor soils, fallows and degraded lands FAO, Though it is drought-resistant and can be found in regions with mm annual rainfall, it tends to be restricted to watery places near ponds and along water courses in the Sahel Ecoport, It grows on many types of soils, including lateritic or clayey soils. It is tolerant of fire but does not stand waterlogging Ecoport, ; FAO, Dichrostachys cinerea is considered to be an invasive species, notably through bush encroachment, the ecological process in dichdostachys a grass-dominated community is changed into a woody community.
Encroachment is the result of overgrazing and is attributed to the ability of Dichrostachys cinerea dichrosttachys regenerate from seeds and root buds. Grazing by goats may help to control its development Ecocrop, ; Yayneshet et al.
In the West Indies, Dichrostachys cinerea has been responsible for the invasion vichrostachys rangelands and has cienrea significant agricultural production losses. The roots fix atmospheric nitrogen and the leaves are frequently used as a green manure. Dichrostachys cinerea is widely used for sand dichrostachus stabilization and soil conservation. It is useful for revegetation and intercropping Ecocrop, Dichrostachys cinerea is also as an ornamental plant and makes efficient defensive live fences FAO, Its nutritive value varies widely between seasons and depends on temperature and rainfall.
The DM content can be influenced by the soil composition Aganga et al. The tannin content of Dichrostachys cinerea decreases its in vitro digestibility Tefera et al. However, tannins exert a positive influence on protein utilization by protecting them from excessive rumen degradation and promoting post-rumen digestion.
Tannins have a defaunating action and diminish the number of protozoa by entrapping them into mucilage. Protozoa will eventually die within the mucilage or flow with the digesta dichrosyachys they will be killed in the acidic medium of the abomasum. The decrease in the number of protozoa will favour cinerex increase in bacteria, and hence the microbial protein available to the animal Choongo et al.
Thorns may injure animals and have been reported as a major problem for cattle in some countries. In the Caribbean Islands, a mycotic dermatosis due to the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis has been linked to wounds caused by the thorns of Dichrostachys cinerea Esterre et cineeea. The foliage of Dichrostachys cinerea is rich in tannins and particularly in condensed tannins, which may be detrimental to digestibility Makkar et al.
However, some authors have considered that the total phenolic content was low enough to be nutritionally safe for ruminants Matlebyane et al. Dichrostachys cinerea is browsed during the dry season. Surveys have shown that Dichrostachys cinerea is well known by farmers in several regions of Sub-Saharan Africa.
In South Africa, it was the most known shrub species in the Bushbuckridge area Chepape et al. It was comparable to alfalfa hay as a supplement to buffalo grass Paspalum conjugatum in yearling male goats, which ate more dry matter and drank less than the animals fed alfalfa hay Aganga et al.
Goats supplemented with sicklebush during the month before kidding had increased milk production, reduced kid mortality, and their kids had higher growth rates cineres weaning weights Maphosa et al. Dichrostachys cinerea can also be included in urea-molasses blocks Aganga et al. Dichrostachys cinerea leaves have been found to be very nutritious and constitute the major edible portion of the plant Tefera et al. However, the thorns make the leaves difficult to eat for cattle and they tend to avoid them when they have the choice Aregawi et al.
The leaf accessibility index measured as the ratio between inter-thorn spacing and mean goat muzzle width of sicklebush was higher than that of Acacia tortilisbut lower than that of Terminalia prunioides Sebata et al. Dichrostachys cinerea retains its leaves late in the dry season, which is particularly valuable in periods of biomass scarcity Aregawi et al. Dicrhostachys protein content is adequate for maintenance and growth of small ruminants Tefera et al.
Sicklebush pods dichrostcahys well accepted by all ruminant species Onana, They contain more protein than dichtostachys grasses available in the same regions. This cheap protein source can replace commercial dichrowtachys sources, especially during the dry cineera Smith et al.
They are a better supplement than Acacia etbaica fruits for fattening young goats Yayneshet et al. Since the pods are indehiscent, their nutritive value for cattle is improved when they are milled through a 4 mm screen Mlambo et al.
The beneficial effect of grinding was only effective for cattle Shayo et al. Plant and animal families Plant and animal species. Datasheet Description Click on the “Nutritional aspects” tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans. Legume forages Forage plants. Invasive species Dichrostachys cinerea is considered to be ddichrostachys invasive species, notably through bush encroachment, the ecological process in which a grass-dominated dichrstachys is changed into a woody community.
Soil improver and stabilizer Cinerae roots fix atmospheric nitrogen and the leaves are frequently used as a green manure. Other uses Dichrostachys cinerea is also as an ornamental plant and makes efficient defensive live fences FAO, Thorns Thorns may injure animals and have been reported as a major problem for cattle in some countries.
Tannins The foliage of Dichrostachys cinerea is rich in tannins and particularly in dicbrostachys tannins, which may be detrimental to digestibility Makkar et al. Leaves Dichrostachys cinerea leaves have been found to be very nutritious and constitute the major edible portion of the plant Tefera et al.
Pods Sicklebush pods are well accepted by all ruminant species Onana, No information found Tables of chemical composition and cinereq value. Sicklebush Dichrostachys cinereaaerial part, fresh Sicklebush Dichrostachys cinereapods, dry.
Sicklebush (Dichrostachys cinerea) | Feedipedia
Sicklebush Dichrostachys cinereaaerial part, fresh. References Aganga et al. Sicklebush Dichrostachys cinereapods, dry. Browse plants as feed resource for ruminants in Botswana. Browse in loamy soils and sandveld vegetational zones of Botswana. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42 3: Dichrostachys cineria and Acacia nilotica as supplements to buffalo grass Buchloe dactyloides hay idchrostachys to Tswana goats.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46 3: Significance of browses in the nutrition of Tswana goats. Forage value of browses and its implication to traditional management of goats in Kgatleng District of Botswana.
Nutritive value of urea Molasses block containing Acacia erubescens or Dichrostachys cineria as natural protein sources. Mineral contents of browse plants in Kweneng District in Botswana. Agricultural Journal, 3 2: Management and utilization of browse species as livestock feed in semi-arid dichrostachhys of North Ethiopia. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch Vicia sativa and some browse and grass species in northern Ethiopia.
Grassland Research in Northern Nigeria. Local use and knowledge validation of fodder trees and shrubs browsed by livestock in Bushbuckridge area, South Africa. Effects of Dichrostachys cinerea supplementation on weight gain and rumen protozoa in cattle. La dermatophilose aux Antilles francaises.
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Dermatophilosis in the French West Indies. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. The nutritive value of the pods of Acacia Arabica and Dichrostachys glomerata. The chemical composition of South African fodder plants. Evaluation of grazing pattern and sustainability of feed resources in pastoral areas of eastern zone of Tanzania. Indigenous knowledge in utilization of local trees and shrubs for sustainable livestock production in central Tanzania. Rural Dev, 6 3 Komwihangilo, D. Farmers’ knowledge in the utilisation of indigenous browse species for feeding of goats in semi arid central Tanzania.
Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. In vitro rumen apparent and true digestibilities of tannin-rich forages.